Introductory Statistics Education and the National Science Foundation

Megan R. Hall and Ginger Holmes Rowell
Middle Tennessee State University

Journal of Statistics Education Volume 16, Number 2 (2008), www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v16n2/rowell1.html

Copyright © 2008 by Megan R. Hall and Ginger Holmes Rowell all rights reserved. This text may be freely shared among individuals, but it may not be republished in any medium without express written consent from the authors and advance notification of the editor.


Key Words: Introductory Statistics; Curriculum Guidelines; Teaching Materials; Grant Projects.

Abstract

This paper describes 27 National Science Foundation supported grant projects that have innovations designed to improve teaching and learning in introductory statistics courses. The characteristics of these projects are compared with the six recommendations given in the Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE) College Report 2005 for teaching an introductory course in statistics. Through this analysis, we are able to see how NSF-supported introductory statistics education projects during the last decade achieve the GAISE ideals. Thus, materials developed from many of these projects provide resources for first steps in implementing GAISE recommendations.

1. Introduction

For many years, statistics educators have been concerned with reforming undergraduate education, especially the introductory course in statistics. Throughout this article, introductory statistics refers to Joan Garfield’s definition: the "non-calculus based, often terminal, introductory applied statistics course" for students not majoring in the subject (Garfield 2000, p.2). The latest efforts to address this first course have evolved for some time and have resulted in the Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE) College Report (2005), which sets forth six recommendations for teaching the introductory course. Likewise, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has addressed undergraduate statistics education by funding many projects aligned with statistics education standards; George Cobb (1993) reviewed 12 such projects, lending inspiration to this report. Following Cobb’s lead, this article reviews the GAISE recommendations and supporting literature, describes the NSF programs used to support this reform, and examines 27 NSF projects, funded from 1993 to 2004, which address the introductory statistics course. By comparing these projects with the GAISE recommendations, we are able to show how NSF has been supporting GAISE principles over the past decade.

2. Guidelines for the Introductory Statistics Course

2.1 Evolution of GAISE

As statistics has made its way into the undergraduate curriculum over the past century, the introductory course has undergone numerous changes. Always at the forefront of reform is the effort to improve teaching and student learning in this course (GAISE 2005). In the early 1990’s, George Cobb organized a focus group to set up guidelines for teaching this course. This group produced a paper called "Teaching Statistics" that set forth three recommendations: 1) emphasize statistical thinking; 2) more data and concepts, less theory and fewer recipes; and 3) foster active learning (Cobb 1992). Toward the end of the decade, the launching of the Undergraduate Statistics Education Initiative (USEI) drew more attention to the introductory course through a paper calling for increased attention to statistical thinking. That article also reported that teachers of statistics were already increasing their use of technology and active learning in the classroom (Garfield, Hogg, Schau, Whittinghill 2002). These publications are just two examples of the work done in statistics education reform that has helped lead to the production of the Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE) College Report (2005).

2.2 GAISE Recommendations

The GAISE College Report (2005) was developed by a group of statisticians/statistics educators with funding from the American Statistical Association (ASA). On May 17, 2005, the ASA approved this document which provides six primary recommendations for teaching introductory statistics: emphasize statistical literacy and develop statistical thinking, use real data, stress conceptual understanding rather than mere knowledge of procedures, foster active learning in the classroom, use technology for developing conceptual understanding and analyzing data, and use assessments to improve and evaluate student learning.

2.2.1 Emphasize Statistical Literacy and Develop Statistical Thinking

The common thread throughout introductory statistics education reform efforts is the emphasis on statistical thinking and literacy (Cobb 1992, Snee 1993, Garfield et al 2002, MAA 2004). Instructors of introductory level courses want their students to understand statistical terms, symbols, graphs, and fundamental ideas, which the GAISE authors consider to be statistical literacy. Along with literacy, students in these courses should be able to think statistically, meaning they should understand the need for data, the importance of data production, the omnipresence of variability, and the quantification and explanation of variability (GAISE 2005). Rumsey (2002) adds to this definition the ability to make informed decisions, while Chance (2002) wants her students to see the big picture and think of statistics in terms of the whole process, rather than isolated techniques. Furthermore, since statistics are present everywhere in the media it is important for citizens to be able think critically about the information thrust upon them (Rumsey 2002; Sullivan 1993).

2.2.2 Use Real Data

Because statistics is about understanding data (Hakeem 2001), students should have access to and experience with real data. The use of real data in introductory statistics courses provides authenticity, helps address issues of data production and collection, gives real-life context to a problem, and can increase student interest in the course (GAISE 2005). There are three kinds of data which accomplish these goals, each with advantages and disadvantages. Class generated data can provide meaningful connections for students because they participated in its production; unfortunately, it can also be toy-like and shallow. Archival data gives students experience with real-world statistics and can be complex and rich in nature; however, students’ excitement may be compromised since they were excluded from the production process, and variability can be hidden. Simulated data emphasizes variability well and allows the instructor more control, but it is not real (Cobb 1993). Regardless of the type, real data used in context can motivate and engage students in the statistical process without being burdensome thanks to technological advances (GAISE 2005).

2.2.3 Stress Conceptual Understanding Rather Than Mere Knowledge of Procedures

Like Cobb (1992), the GAISE authors believe that topical coverage can be sacrificed for conceptual understanding and suggest paring down the course syllabus. "If students don’t understand the important concepts, there’s little value in knowing a set of procedures," (GAISE 2005, p. 10). Experts in other disciplines, such as biology professors Udovic, Morris, Dickman, Postlethwait, and Wetherwax (2002), agree that deep understanding of fewer concepts is better than shallow understanding of many. This has been a principle part of the undergraduate statistics education reform movement, as more instructors are focusing on concepts in their courses (Garfield 2000). The Mathematical Association of America (2004) also endorsed this recommendation for statistics courses in their Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics 2004 Curriculum Guidelines.

2.2.4 Foster Active Learning in the Classroom

There are many advantages to incorporating active learning in the introductory statistics course. It allows students to discover concepts, engage in the statistical process, communicate in statistical language, and work in teams, as well as provides instructors informal methods of assessment (GAISE 2005). Active learning ideas can be traced back to Socrates and are found in the work of Dewey, Piaget, and Lewin (Zeichner, Litcher 1998). In a study of student learning styles in English, chemistry, mathematics, and psychology courses, August, Hurtado, Wimsatt, and Dey (2002) found that 91% of students felt they learned better from in-class activities and 85% found lecture-only classes boring. McConnell, Steer, and Owens (2003) found that active learning techniques in geology courses increase student participation and that students who have engaged in active learning perform better on exams and logical thinking tests than those in traditional settings. To foster active learning, activities should focus on conceptual understanding and discovery learning and can be group work, laboratory activities, or class discussions (GAISE 2005).

2.2.5 Use Technology for Developing Conceptual Understanding and Analyzing Data

Technology, a resource which has been transforming statistical research for many years, has also been a major component of statistics education reform (Moore, Cobb, Garfield, Meeker 1995, Garfield 2000). This remarkable tool can be used in the introductory statistics course to analyze data, simulate concepts, or provide alternative assessments, while motivating and exciting students (GAISE 2005, Schenone-Stevens 1999). However, there are some cautions teachers should heed when exploiting technology’s benefits. When used for its own sake, technology has no redeeming educational value (Schenone-Stevens 1999); rather than replace human interaction, technology should enrich teaching styles and techniques (Moore, Cobb, Garfield, Meeker 1995). When used correctly, technology can greatly enhance student learning (GAISE 2005).

2.2.6 Use Assessments to Improve and Evaluate Student Learning

It is understood that students are concerned with how they are assessed; therefore, assessment techniques should place value on learning objectives and understanding key ideas (GAISE 2005). High quality assessments should be aligned with national standards, should measure what matters for improvement, and should be learning experiences themselves (Cobb 1993; Caudell 1996; Chance and Garfield 2002). Such instruments drive curriculum, reflect student learning, and have real-life context (Caudell 1996). Examples include formative evaluations, written reports, portfolios, experiments, essays, speeches, projects, and activities (Caudell 1996, McConnell, et al 2003, GAISE 2005).

2.2.7 Interconnection of the GAISE Recommendations

These recommendations made by the GAISE authors do not stand alone. Each can be met by materials or techniques intended to address another. For instance, a teacher may implement technology in order to convey a particular concept, an activity may involve student collection of data, or a group project may be used for assessment. Furthermore, all of these can move students toward being statistically literate or employing statistical thinking. In any case, statistics educators need not approach these guidelines as six separate techniques to master and implement, but as one complete way to help students become good statistical citizens in an information age.

2.3 GAISE in Other Disciplines

These approaches to teaching are not limited to introductory statistics or any statistics course. The ideas of scientific reasoning, active learning, conceptual understanding, use of technology, and appropriate assessments are present in biology, geology, business, engineering psychology, and other disciplines that depend on statistics (Rolker-Dolinsk, Qualters 1994; Craddock 1998; Bass, Rosenzwig 1999; Hakeem 2001; McConnell, et al 2003; McCormick, MacKinnon, Jones 1999; Udovic, et al 2002). Some National Science Foundation (NSF) projects described in this paper meet GAISE recommendations by addressing introductory level statistics through courses in these disciplines.

3. NSF Division of Undergraduate Education Programs

The NSF has supported undergraduate education since its inception in 1950. In order to take a more central role in reform efforts, NSF established the Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE) (NSF 1996). The following programs are or were supported by DUE and have had an impact on introductory statistics courses.

The Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement (ILI) program of NSF DUE began in 1988 in order to encourage and support improvement in laboratory curricula for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education institutionally and nationwide. Projects funded through this program helped create and equip laboratory facilities, upgrade equipment for laboratory instruction, develop laboratory exercises that demonstrate basic principles, and stimulate interest in STEM courses by making them relevant and understandable. The program accepted its final proposals in fiscal year 1998 and transitioned into the Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) program (NSF 1998).

The main objectives of the Course and Curriculum Development (CCD) program, which ran from 1988 until 1998, were to improve undergraduate STEM teaching, increase student understanding of and attitudes toward STEM, and to place greater value on teaching and scholarship through the development and adaptation of courses, curriculum, and educational materials (Eiseman, Fairweather, Rosenblum, Britton 1998). Grants funded through this program often produced textbooks, manuals, or course materials or created courses or sequences of courses. Like ILI, CCD was finally assimilated into CCLI (NSF 1998).

Established in 1998, the Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) program combined properties of CCD and ILI, funding proposals for curricular development and purchase of instructional laboratory equipment. The initial four tracks of CCLI were intended to stimulate creative teaching and pedagogical scholarship among faculty (NSF 1998). The Educational Materials Development (EMD) track aimed to encourage and support the development of quality instructional materials that enhance student learning in STEM, while the Adaptation and Implementation (AI) track assisted in integrating exemplary materials, laboratory experiences, and educational practices at other diverse universities (NSF 2003a, NSF 2003b). By sponsoring faculty development opportunities, the National Dissemination (ND) track of CCLI promoted the introduction of exemplary materials, practices, and techniques to large numbers of colleges and universities nationwide (2003a). Finally, the Assessment of Student Achievement (ASA) track developed effective assessment tools associated with student learning in STEM and supported the adaptation, implementation, and dissemination of such tools (NSF 2003c). These four tracks were phased out in 2006 to make room for a cyclical model of knowledge production and improvement with five supporting components: teaching and learning research, learning materials development, faculty enhancement, innovative materials implementation, and assessment of learning innovations (NSF 2005a).

Another program that was integrated into CCLI was the Undergraduate Faculty Enhancement (UFE) program, which operated from 1988 to 1998. UFE sought to provide faculty with opportunities to experience new and exciting developments in undergraduate education such as new content, teaching methods, experimental techniques, and technology. Funded projects conducted workshops, short courses, seminars, and other such activities to promote these developments. The program supported more than 500 projects and over 750 workshops during its lifetime (Marder, McCullough, Perakis 2001). Another program for educators was the Collaboratives for Excellence in Teacher Preparation (CETP) program founded in 1993. The goal was to increase the number and quality of future pre-Kindergarten through 12th grade teachers, emphasizing subject area competence, effective pedagogical techniques, and national standards for math and science. This program was redesigned, and from 2003 to 2005 was the Teacher Professional Continuum (TPC) program ( NSF 1999; Prival 2008b). Currently, components of this program are interwoven with the Discovery Research K-12 (DR-K12). (Prival 2008a)

The National Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Digital Library (NSDL) program supports the collection and organization of educational materials into a national online digital library through projects that develop and enhance collections as well as implement digital library services. Projects can support existing resource providers, maintain material currency and selection criteria, select existing materials for inclusion, or fund workshops promoting the library (NSF 2005b).

4. NSF Projects Meeting GAISE Recommendations

4.1 Overview

As noted above, any given educational technique, practice, or set of materials need not be isolated to one specific GAISE recommendation. Often, by setting out to meet one recommendation, educators end up meeting several at a time. By searching NSF's Award Search Webpage (www.nsf.gov), we were able to find 110 projects affecting introductory statistics funded between 1993 and 2004. Of these, 95% met at least one GAISE recommendation, while 65% met more than one. The NSF funded projects that follow are described in terms of one GAISE recommendation, but that does not mean they meet only that recommendation. Projects were selected to exemplify the qualities of a particular recommendation, even if they meet more than one, as many do. Furthermore, we do not claim that this list is exhaustive of NSF projects that meet GAISE guidelines. If you participated in an NSF project that fits the nature and scope of this article and is not discussed or listed in the Appendix, we extend our apologies for the omission.

4.2 Projects that Emphasize Statistical Literacy and Thinking

Projects that address the first guideline are targeted at helping students become statistically literate, critical thinkers, and informed statistical citizens. The Electronic Encyclopedia of Statistical Examples and Exercises (EESEE; http://www.whfreeman.com/eesee/eesee.html) and the Data and Story Library (DASL: http://lib.stat.cmu.edu/DASL/) are online resources full of real datasets, case studies, and other materials for use in statistics classes. In order to enhance these two resources, project investigators Paul Velleman, William Notz, Elizabeth Stasny, and Dennis Pearl led "Interactive Video Resources for Learning Statistics" (#9555073, #9555233). This project added video resources of current events found on the news and other television programs to help students think critically about statistical applications in real world events (Notz, Pearl, Stasny 1996).

Another project focused on current events that utilizes the EESEE and DASL, is "Change: Current Studies of Current Chance Issues, Phase II," (#9354592) by Laurie Snell. Chance is a quantitative literacy course designed to turn students into informed critical readers by basing the course on statistical concepts found in current events. Students read articles from Chance Magazine and other journals, critiquing the statistical methods used. Topics covered include probability concepts, descriptive statistics, design of experiments, sampling, correlation, and exploratory data analysis. Online and printed materials are available to help instructors teach such a course (Snell 1994, http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/). Additionally, a workshop called "Chance Workshop" (#9653416) was conducted to teach educators how to use current events to teach probability and statistics concepts (Snell 1997).

Other workshops have been conducted to help teachers with little or no statistical training learn better ways to teach statistical literacy. Two examples are George Cobb and Mary Parker’s "Statistical Thinking and Teaching Statistics"(#9255447) and its successor "STATS: Statistical Thinking with Active Teaching Strategies," (#9554621) led by Allan Rossman and Thomas Short. These projects supported numerous weeklong workshops emphasizing statistical thinking through real data, conceptual understanding, active learning, software, and assessments, thus touching all components of GAISE (Cobb and Parker 1998; Rossman and Short 1999).

Students in other disciplines also benefit from statistical literacy and thinking skills. To help biology students appreciate statistics and improve their quantitative reasoning skills, "IBASE: Integrating Biology and Statistics Education," (#0309751) by James Watrous, Deborah Lurie, and Denise Ratterman, created two courses, biology and statistics, to be taken simultaneously. In the biology course, students collected data from experiments completed in the lab and then analyzed the data in the statistics course. Thus the students were able to learn real-world applications in a relevant situation, reducing anxiety toward statistics and providing better understanding (Watrous, Lurie, Ratterman 2003).

4.3 Projects that Use Real Data

Real data is often easiest to collect in other disciplines that use statistics on a regular basis. For example, the American Sociological Association, partnering with the University of Michigan, sponsored "Collaborative Project on Integrating Census Data Analysis into the Curriculum" (#0088715, #0089006) led by William Frey, Carla Howery and Felice Levine. This National Dissemination project attempted to revise the sociology curriculum at numerous schools by emphasizing the use of real data from the US Census Bureau. The project investigators called for proposals from other universities to take part in this project in order to have widespread impact (Frey 2001, American Sociological Association 2002). The natural sciences are another area with easy access to real data. "Service Learning in Chemistry: Lead in Soil from Vehicle Emissions" (#0410115) by Hal Van Ryswyk incorporated data analysis into introductory chemistry classes. Students sampled and tested soil for lead, analyzed their own data, and prepared written and oral presentations. The students in these courses also collaborated with students in probability and statistics courses as well as local elementary schools (Van Ryswyk 2004). For those educators without such easy access to real data, there are other ways to find it. For example, James Albert designed an introductory statistics course based entirely on baseball statistics through "Development of Sports Statistics Modules for Introductory Statistics Classes" (#0088703). Data came from baseball cards, the Internet, and simulation. Students were able to understand concepts and analyze real data in an interesting context (Albert 2002).

Analyzing data can be difficult without computer access and appropriate software. Robert Gould and Mahtash Esfandiari’s goal for "A Statistics Undergraduate Computing Laboratory" (#9981172), funded in 2000, was to establish a computer laboratory for statistics courses, where students could analyze real data, teaching the value of statistical thinking and deeper intuitive understanding of the entire data analysis process. The project investigators believe real datasets can help students confront important basic problems in statistics without the datasets being huge and messy (Gould, Esfandiari 2003).

4.4 Projects that Stress Conceptual Understanding over Knowledge of Procedures

In order to place a deliberate emphasis on conceptual understanding versus theoretical background, educators often employ real data, active learning, and technology. The "Rice Virtual Laboratory in Statistics" (#9751307) by David Lane, Joe Austin, David Scott, Keith Baggerly, and Miguel Quinones is a web-based resource for students and teachers of statistics. The site (http://onlinestatbook.com/rvls.html) houses the Hyperstat Online textbook, case studies, simulations, and some basic analysis tools. The intended progression is for users to explore a statistical concept demonstrated in a case study, which will link them to explanatory material from the online textbook, leading them to simulations of the concept through Java applets, ending with the users’ own experiments, providing the student or teacher with a thorough lesson and deeper conceptual understanding (Lane, Austin, Scott, Baggerly, Quinones 2000). Associated with the Rice Virtual Labs is "Online Statistics Education: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study" (#0089435) by David Lane, David Scott, Rudy Guerra, Michelle Hebl, and Daniel Osherson. This online statistics course (http://onlinestatbook.com/) contains lecture materials, simulations, self-testing, and real data from case studies, and can be modified depending on audience level. To learn the concepts, students answer a series of questions, then conduct simulations to see if they were correct, and then answer the questions again (Lane, Scott, Guerra, Hebl, Osherson 2004). Beth Klingner and Nira Herrmann make use of Lane’s online course in their project, "Enhancing the Mathematical Foundation of Students through Online Course Modules" (#0311016). They adapted the materials into modules designed to teach quantitative and analytical skills in relevant contexts (Klingner, Herrmann 2003). For those with little or no computer access, "Laboratory Lessons for Discovery-Based Statistics" (#9650581) by Richard Scheaffer produced hands-on, student-directed lessons that teach fundamental concepts like randomness, sampling distributions, confidence, and significance, which can include, but do not require, computer use (Scheaffer, 1996).

4.5 Projects that Foster Active Learning

Many projects that involve active learning do so through computer laboratory modules, activities, or course-long projects. These activities are designed to help students practice the scientific process while gaining deeper conceptual understanding. Both "Fostering Conceptual Understanding Using a ‘Hands-On’ Approach in Undergraduate Statistics" (#9452320) by Danuta Bukatko and Patricia Kramer and "A Statistical Laboratory for Active Learning" (#9550891) by Richard Scheaffer created interactive, hands-on computer module activities that help students learn statistical concepts using graphing and analysis (Bukatko, Kramer 1994; Scheaffer 1995). "An Activity-Based Statistics Course for Engineers" (#0126815) by Steven Butt, Bob White, and Tycho Fredericks gives students the opportunity to collect their own data and solve real-world problems in weekly labs and workshops, while "Development of an Inquiry-based Curriculum in Ecology" (#0088369) by Richard Tankersley and John Morris has integrated laboratory modules into a four semester sequence of ecology courses, where students sharpen their thinking skills through statistical technique exercises and self-designed investigations (Butt, White, Fredericks 2004; Tankersley, Morris 2005).

Another active learning project that spans courses is "Promoting Undergraduate Research through Development of Two Interdisciplinary Research Methods/Statistics Courses and Increased Support of Student Research," (#0126435) by Kathy Silgailis and Vishwa Bhat. Resulting from this project is a two-semester sequence of courses for science majors in which students complete a sequence-long project. In the first semester, students develop a research question and hypothesis while learning basic statistical procedures, and in the second semester, they refine the question, design and conduct data collection, and prepare written and oral presentations of their findings. This in-depth project also includes software training and laboratory activities (Silgailis, Bhat 2005).

4.6 Projects that Effectively Use Technology

It would be very tempting to say that any project that implements some type of technology meets the technology recommendation; however, technology for the sake of technology is not what this guideline recommends. Utilizing technology means providing access to hardware or software that enhances the learning of statistics, especially computational or simulation software. For instance, Roxy Peck and James Daly’s "Studio Environment for Introductory Statistics" (#9750663) established a laboratory classroom so that students could complete lab activities, projects and simulations to help them learn statistics (Peck, Daily 1997).

Simulation software is useful technology for teaching statistics. Sampling SIM, software developed by Joan Garfield, Robert delMas, and Beth Chance through "Tools for Teaching and Assessing Statistical Inference" (#9752523), helps students with conceptual understanding by allowing them to make and test predictions. The simulation software provides instructional materials and is available freely over the web at http://www.tc.umn.edu/~delma001/stat_tools/ (Garfield, delMas 2000).

A larger software program focused on data analysis was developed through "A Data Analysis Exercise Server for Introductory Statistics Courses" (#9980973) by Todd Ogden and Webster West and "DoStat.com: A Web Site for Educational Data Analysis and Assessment" (#0226097) by Webster West and James Lynch. "StatCrunch," initially called "WebStat," is low-cost online computational software found at http://www.statcrunch.com. This Excel compatible software allows students to upload their own data and perform descriptive statistics, hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, regression, ANOVA, categorical or quantitative graphing, and more (West, Wu, Heydt 2004). A project utilizing StatCrunch is "Visualizing Statistics – A Online Introductory Course" (#9950671) by Alexander Kugushev and CyberGnostics, Inc. This online course offers explanatory text, applets, real data, testing, and "StatCrunch" analytical software (CyberGnostics 2005).

4.7 Projects on Assessment

Determining if you are meeting your instructional goals for your students is difficult without proper assessment instruments. Two projects have been funded which provide access to statistical assessments. The "Web-based ARTIST Project" (#0206571) by Joan Garfield, Beth Chance, and Robert delMas consists of an assessment builder of over 1,000 items varying by format, level, and statistical topic as well as project ideas, article critiques, group work options, and scoring guidelines. References of works published on assessment topics are also available on the site, https://app.gen.umn.edu/artist/ (Garfield, Chance 2004). "Statistical Concepts Inventory (SCI): A Cognitive Achievement Tool in Engineering Statistics" (#0206977) by Teri Rhoads, Teri Murphy, and Robert Terry is a multiple choice exam intended to measure the ability of engineering students to apply statistical concepts to real-world situations. This assessment tool includes questions related to statistical topics important in engineering such as designing and conducting experiments and analyzing and interpreting data. It is available at http://onlinestatbook.com/rvls.html/ (Rhoads, Murphy 2005).

4.8 Projects that Address All Recommendations

Many of the projects previously described meet more than one recommendation. However, few projects meet all GAISE recommendations. One such project that reaches across the discipline of statistics to touch students and teachers at all levels is "CAUSEweb: A Digital Library of Undergraduate Statistics Education" (#0333672) led by Dennis Pearl and supported by the Consortium for the Advancement of Undergraduate Statistics Education (CAUSE). This digital library, found at http://causeweb.org/, includes a resource section which provides descriptions and/or reviews for statistics education materials. Students and teachers can search for resources by material type, audience level, math level, application area, or statistical topic (Green, McDaniel, Rowell 2005).

5. Conclusion

The GAISE College Report recommendations are the result that evolved from many years of work by the statistics education community to determine the best standards for teaching and learning introductory statistics. With so many NSF-funded projects achieving the ideals described in GAISE, it is apparent that the NSF supports the implementation of these recommendations. NSF-supported resources described in this paper provide a good starting place for introductory statistics teachers to find ideas to help them implement one or more of the GAISE recommendations. The Appendix includes additional "information" on over 100 NSF-supported projects in introductory-level statistics education. Additional information about these projects can be found by using the NSF Awards Search webpage (http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/) and entering the award number in the "Search Award for" dialog box.


Appendix: NSF Projects

Award Number

Title

PI

Start Date

NSF Program

Award Amount

Institution

9950494

Computer Enhanced Mathematics Instruction

Addison Frey

June 1, 1999

AI

$25,429

Alfred University

9950161

An Interactive Learning Environment in Statistics: Integrating Multimedia Laboratory Exercises and Courseware into the Statistics Curriculum

Deborah A. Nolan

July 1, 1999

AI

$99,238

U. California Berkeley

9950509

High-Tech., Project-Based Beginning Algebra and Statistics Course for Two-Year Colleges

Sue E. Stokley

August 1, 1999

AI

$32,847

Spartanburg Tech. Coll.

9950628

Beyond Mapping and Reporting: Improving Students' Skills in Science and Analysis for Geography, Environmental Studies, and Ecology

Robert Werner

August 1, 1999

AI

$42,200

Univ. of St. Thomas

9972494

Integrated Statistics and Computer Application Courses

Melinda A. Holt

August 1, 1999

AI

$87,577

Texas Women's Univ.

9950229

Quantitative Reasoning and Informed Citizenship: Implementing an Activity-based Laboratory Course

Kay Somers

September 1, 1999

AI

$79,412

Moravian College

9950856

New Laboratory and Integrated Course Materials to Improve the Psychology Curriculum

Scott Ottaway

September 1, 1999

AI

$86,276

West. Washington U.

9980995

Using the LaCEPT Model to Reform an Elementary Statistics Course

Frank Neubrander

January 1, 2000

AI

$74,063

LSU, A&M Coll.

9952620

Development of Laboratory and Field Experience Based Course in Asphalt Technology for Civil Engineering Undergraduate Students

Rajib Mallick

February 1, 2000

AI

$31,479

Worcester Poly. Inst.

9981172

A Statistics Undergraduate Computing Laboratory

Robert L. Gould

March 1, 2000

AI

$69,181

UCLA

0087680

A Multifunctional Technology Classroom for the Teaching of Data-Intensive Statistics

Steven C. Patch

January 1, 2001

AI

$49,450

UNC, Asheville

0088369

Development of an Integrated Inquiry-based Curriculum in Ecology

Richard Tankersley

February 1, 2001

AI

$201,134

Florida Inst. Of Tech.

0088377

Political Analysis in an Experiential/ Collaborative Setting

Allan McBride

March 15, 2001

AI

$45,642

Univ. Southern Miss.

0088422

Adaptation and Implementation of Computer Technology into the Mathematical Science Curriculum

T. Len Miller

July 1, 2001

AI

$93,011

MSU

0126815

An Activity-Based Statistics Course for Engineers

Steven E. Butt

January 23, 2002

AI

$52,139

Western Michigan U.

0126914

Integrating Mathematics and Statistics into the Biology Curriculum

Eric Marland

March 1, 2002

AI

$159,583

Appalachian S.U.

0126682

A Multi-stage, Technology-intensive Approach to Statistics Instruction

Jeff Knisley

May 1, 2002

AI

$124,996

ETSU

0126435

Promoting Undergraduate Research through the Development of Two Interdisciplinary Research Methods/ Statistics Courses and Increased Support of  Student Research

Kathy Silgailis

July 1, 2002

AI

$197,975

Will. Patterson Univ.

0309751

IBASE: Integrating Biology and Statistics Education

James J. Watrous

July 1, 2003

AI

$89,188

St. Joseph's University

0311016

Enhancing the Mathematical Foundation of Students through Online Course Modules

Beth Klingner

August 15, 2003

AI

$164,985

Pace University, NY

0310932

Implementing Activity-based Cooperative Learning and Technology (ACT Curriculum) in Statistics Courses for Non-majors and K-12 Preservice Teachers

Carl M. Lee

September 1, 2003

AI

$177,052

Central Michigan Univ.

0311579

Collaborative Research: Adapting and Evaluating Online Materials for Undergraduate Statistics using LON-CAPA Technology

Deborah A. Kashy

September 15, 2003

AI

$35,078

Michigan State Univ.

0311695

Collaborative Research: Adapting and Evaluating Online Materials for Undergraduate Statistics using LON-CAPA Technology

Jennifer G. Boldry

September 15, 2003

AI

$47,125

Montana State Univ.

0410115

Service-Learning in Chemistry: Lead in Soil from Vehicle Emissions

Hal Van Ryswyk

September 1, 2004

AI

$41,227

Harvey Mudd College

0411041

Integrating Data Analysis into the Curriculum: Responding to the Scientific Literacy Gap Among Undergraduate Students in the Social Sciences

Esther Wilder

September 1, 2004

AI

$175,000

CUNY, Herbert Lehman

0206571

The Web-based ARTIST Project

Joan Garfield

August 15, 2002

ASA

$551,094

UMN, Twin Cities

0206977

The Statistical Concepts Inventory (SCI): A Cognitive Achievement Tool in Engineering Statistics

Teri R. Rhoads

September 1, 2002

ASA

$499,999

University of Oklahoma

9254087

A Modular Laboratory and Project-Based Statistics Curriculum

Joseph D. Petruccelli

January 1, 1993

CCD

$165,000

Worcester Poly. Inst.

9254182

Realizing the Power of Computers in Business Statistics Instruction: A Next Step

Ronald Tracy

February 1, 1993

CCD

$60,029

Oakland University

9354506

Developing Statistical Understanding through Interactive Computing/Graphics

Leo Breiman

March 1, 1994

CCD

$166,637

U. California Berkeley

9354419

Constructing Knowledge of Statistical Concepts through Modern Technology

Dennis D. Wackerly

May 1, 1994

CCD

$99,992

University of Florida

9354592

Change: Current Studies of Current Chance Issues, Phase II

J. Laurie Snell

July 1, 1994

CCD

$209,914

Dartmouth College

9455393

New Engineering Course with a Virtual Computer Laboratory

Norma F. Hubele

February 1, 1995

CCD

$100,600

Arizona State Univ.

9455300

New Geology Laboratories: Interactive Data Acquisition, Analysis, and Multimedia Modules of Geologic Phenomena, Part II

Dennis Hodge

May 1, 1995

CCD

$75,000

SUNY, Buffalo

9455601

Coupling Mathematics and Life Science Courses

Marlene Wilson

June 1, 1995

CCD

$51,293

Univ. of Portland

9455578

Revitalizing Introductory Statistics for Engineering by Capitalizing on Interdisciplinary Cooperation and State-of-the-Art Technology

Panickos N. Palettas

August 1, 1995

CCD

$57,866

Virginia Tech

9696174

Revitalizing Introductory Statistics for Engineering by Capitalizing on Interdisciplinary Cooperation and State-of-the-Art Technology

Panickos N. Palettas

January 1, 1996

CCD

$140,975

Ohio State University

9555073

Interactive Video Resources for Learning Statistics

William I. Notz

March 1, 1996

CCD

$103,701

Ohio State University

9554805

Synergistic Learning in Biology and Statistics (SLIBS)

Robert V. Blystone

June 1, 1996

CCD

$246,336

Trinity University

9555233

Interactive Video Resources for Learning Statistics

Paul F. Velleman

June 1, 1996

CCD

$51,598

Cornell University

9653153

Earth Math Phase 3; Calculus and Statistics for a New World

Nancy Zumoff

January 1, 1997

CCD

$22,800

Kennesaw S.U.

9653267

Revitalizing the Study of Probability through Applications, Technology, and Collaborative Learning

Michael Bean

September 1, 1997

CCD

$180,001

University of Michigan

9752428

A Probability/Activity Approach for Teaching Introductory Statistics

James Albert

January 1, 1998

CCD

$50,000

Bowling Green Univ.

9752559

Probability and Surprise: Animations and Simulations

Susan P. Holmes

January 1, 1998

CCD

$99,970

Cornell University

9752523

Tools for Teaching and Assessing Statistical Inference

Joan B. Garfield

February 1, 1998

CCD

$100,021

UMN, Twin Cities

9752645

Intersection of Population Biology and Mathematics

Jane Gallagher

June 1, 1998

CCD

$150,000

CUNY

9850035

Science Education for Tomorrow

Elizabeth Boylan

September 1, 1998

CCD

$196,152

Barnard College

9996235

Probability and Surprise: Animations and Simulations

Susan P. Holmes

January 1, 1999

CCD

$62,048

Stanford University

9653224

Revitalizing Classroom Teaching and Learning: A Beginning for Two-Year College Mathematics

Elizabeth Higgins

February 1, 1997

CCD/ATE

$99,799

Greenville Tech. Coll.

9752185

Integrating Pedagogical and Curriculum Theory with Teaching Practice Throughout all Mathematics and Science Courses in the College of Arts & Sciences and Evaluating ...

Edward Dubinsky

March 1, 1998

CCD/CETP

$100,000

Georgia State Univ.

9354529

Informed Statistical Reasoning in an Uncertain World: Situated Simulations for Undergraduates

Sharon Derry

June 1, 1994

CETP

$202,316

UW-Madison

9950671

Visualizing Statistics - An On-Line Introductory Course

Alexander Kugushev

October 1, 1999

EMD

$260,484

CyberGnostics Inc.

9980796

Development of an Interactive Tutorial on Statistical Design and Analysis of Experiments

John O'Haver

February 1, 2000

EMD

$79,898

University of Miss.

9980973

A Data Analysis Exercise Server for Introductory Statistics Courses

R. Todd Ogden

May 1, 2000

EMD

$75,000

USC, Columbia

0088703

Development of Sports Statistics Modules for Introductory Statistics Classes

James H. Albert

January 1, 2001

EMD

$67,258

Bowling Green Univ.

0089435

Online Statistics Education: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study

David M. Lane

February 1, 2001

EMD

$401,990

Will. Marsh Rice Univ.

0126855

Case-Based Reasoning for Engineering Statistics

George C. Runger

December 1, 2001

EMD

$74,622

Arizona State Univ.

0126433

Teaching Psychological Research Methods with Online Examples

William Maki

April 15, 2002

EMD

$102,147

Texas Tech. University

0226097

DoStat.com: A Web Site for Educational Data Analysis and Assessment

R. Webster West

June 15, 2002

EMD

$130,002

USC, Columbia

0230803

Stem and Tendril: Vertically Integrated Statistics Laboratories

Andrew Poje

January 15, 2003

EMD

$74,836

CUNY Staten Island

0341210

Improving the Quality of and Access to Undergraduate Statistics Education

Fred Speed

January 1, 2004

EMD

$74,826

Texas A&M Univ.

0341529

An Audio-Tactile Curriculum to Support Visually Impaired Statistics Students

Karen Gourgey

February 15, 2004

EMD

$30,032

CUNY, Baruch

9752705

UFE: Teaching Computer-Intensive Resampling Techniques

Amer. Stat. Assoc.

February 15, 1998

EMD/UFE

$60,000

Amer. Stat. Assoc.

9250330

Behavioral Sciences Computer Laboratory

James Raymondo

July 1, 1992

ILI

$25,280

Union College

9351126

Data Analysis Laboratory

Loren Haskins

April 1, 1993

ILI

$32,355

Carleton College

9351926

Elementary Statistics Computer Laboratory

Louis M. Friedler

April 1, 1993

ILI

$19,259

Beaver College

9352131

An Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Data Acquisition, Analysis, and Modeling

Dwight Krehbiel

April 1, 1993

ILI

$49,560

Bethel College

9351035

Discovering Statistics: A Laboratory Approach

Richard L. Scheaffer

June 1, 1993

ILI

$25,000

University of Florida

9351493

Computational Classroom Facility for Biometry Courses

Charles McCulloch

June 1, 1993

ILI

$40,000

Cornell University

9352076

Technology for: Improvements of Mathematical Concepts and Initiation to Professional Tools

Karla Foss

June 1, 1993

ILI

$35,000

Pellissippi STCC

9352110

Instrumentation for Novel Laboratory Instruction in Undergraduate Statistics Curricula

Walter R. Pirie

June 1, 1993

ILI

$52,646

Virginia Tech

9350746

A Computer Lab for Biological Statistics

Daniel E. Wujek

July 1, 1993

ILI

$26,887

Central Michigan Univ.

9352312

Novel Laboratory Instruction in Undergraduate Statistics Curricula

Panickos N. Palettas

August 1, 1993

ILI

$90,221

Virginia Tech

9451814

Multidisciplinary Statistics Curriculum and Computing Laboratory

Chris Noble

June 1, 1994

ILI

$38,560

Lawrence University

9452229

Interactive Computerized Statistics Classroom

Louise Hainline

June 1, 1994

ILI

$70,072

CUNY, Brooklyn

9451972

In-Class Experimental Learning in Four Fundamental Courses

John Stone

July 1, 1994

ILI

$70,000

Grinnell College

9452622

Developing a Computer Lab for the Technology Enhanced Teaching of Undergraduate Statistics

Judith Treas

August 1, 1994

ILI

$55,000

U. California, Irvine

9451398

A Computer Classroom for Introductory Statistics

Joseph D. Petruccelli

August 15, 1994

ILI

$53,348

Worcester Poly. Inst.

9452156

Enhancement of Statistics, Research Methods and Experimental Psychology Laboratories

Virginia A. Diehl

September 1, 1994

ILI

$33,659

West. Illinois Univ.

9452320

Fostering Conceptual Understanding Using a "Hands-On" Approach

Danuta Bukatko

September 1, 1994

ILI

$17,640

Holy Cross College

9550891

A Statistical Laboratory for Active Learning

Richard L. Scheaffer

May 1, 1995

ILI

$14,940

University of Florida

9551850

Computer Classroom for Statistical Instruction

Ronald L. Tracy

August 1, 1995

ILI

$65,000

Oakland University

9551275

Computer Stat Lab

Patricia R. Wilkinson

September 1, 1995

ILI

$29,391

CUNY, BMCC

9551460

From Descriptive to Adaptive Understanding: Using Interactive Computer Simulation in Quantitative Biology and Statistics Labs

David G. Huffman

September 1, 1995

ILI

$62,320

Southwest Texas S.U.

9552311

Fostering Creativity, Teamwork, and Scientific Thinking in Introductory Statistics through Computer-Based Laboratories

Peter G. Jessup

September 1, 1995

ILI

$24,333

Ursinus College

9650048

Interactive Undergraduate Statistical Computing Laboratory

John I. Marden

May 1, 1996

ILI

$38,070

UI, Urbana-Champaign

9650871

Computer Laboratories in Calculus & Statistics

Bruce Torrence

June 1, 1996

ILI

$41,597

Randolph-Macon Coll.

9696158

Novel Laboratory Instruction in Undergraduate Statistics Curricula

Panickos N. Palettas

June 1, 1996

ILI

$47,651

Ohio State University

9650645

Mathematics and Statistics Computer Classroom

I-Lok Chang

July 1, 1996

ILI

$23,680

American University

9651186

Mathematics Multimedia Presentation Classroom

Kevin McDonald

July 1, 1996

ILI

$60,000

Mt. San Antonio Coll.

9650032

A Microcomputer Laboratory for Experimental Psychology

Sarah Ransdell

August 1, 1996

ILI

$22,000

Florida Atlantic Univ.

9650581

Laboratory Lessons for Discovery-Based Statistics

Richard L. Scheaffer

August 1, 1996

ILI

$46,620

University of Florida

9650659

Department of Economics Computer Center

Byron David

August 1, 1996

ILI

$19,900

CUNY, City College

9651271

Computer Assisted Interdisciplinary Problem Solving in Mathematics and Science

Samantha Prashanta

September 1, 1996

ILI

$31,830

Finger Lakes CC

9750663

Studio Environment for Introductory Statistics

Roxy Peck

June 1, 1997

ILI

$61,429

Cal Poly State Univ.

9751571

Data-Driven Statistics Courses in an Interactive Teaching Computer Laboratory

Andre M. Lubecke

June 1, 1997

ILI

$54,969

Lander University

9751307

The Rice Virtual Lab in Statistics

David M. Lane

July 1, 1997

ILI

$200,000

Will. Marsh Rice Univ.

9851421

STATLAB - An Interactive Classroom and Laboratory for Introductory Statistics

David C. Carothers

June 1, 1998

ILI

$59,936

James Madison Univ.

9851146

Equipping the Statistical Toolkit: An Intranet-Based Approach to Introductory Statistics

Gavin M. Cross

July 1, 1998

ILI

$40,953

Coe College

9851321

Computers for an Introductory Interdisciplinary Data Analysis Course

Laura P. Eisen

July 1, 1998

ILI

$16,780

Trinity College

9851559

Computing-Enhanced Experiential Learning in the Introductory Statistics Course

Ann R. Cannon

July 1, 1998

ILI

$21,090

Cornell College

0089005

MAA Comprehensive Professional Development Program For Mathematics Faculty

J Michael Person

April 1, 2001

ND

$966,291

MAA

0088715

Collaborative Project on Integrating Census Data Analysis into the Curriculum

William H. Frey

May 15, 2001

ND

$522,205

University of Michigan

0089006

Collaborative Project on Integrating Census Data Analysis into the Curriculum

Felice J. Levine

May 15, 2001

ND

$417,241

Amer. Soc. Assoc.

0341481

PRofessional Enhancement Program (PREP)

J Michael Pearson

February 1, 2004

ND/NSDL

$462,690

MAA

0333672

CAUSEweb: A Digital Library of Undergraduate Statistics Education

Dennis Pearl

October 1, 2003

NSDL

$824,945

Ohio State University

9255447

Statistical Thinking and Teaching Statistics

George W. Cobb

March 1, 1993

UFE

$450,068

MAA

9554621

STATS: Statistical Thinking with Active Teaching Strategies

Allan J. Rossman

January 1, 1996

UFE

$202,844

MAA

9653416

Chance Workshop

J. Laurie Snell

January 1, 1997

UFE

$87,660

Dartmouth College

9653442

Elementary Statistics Laboratory Workshop

John D. Spurrier

March 1, 1997

UFE

$67,845

USC, Columbia





Acknowledgments

Megan R. Hall worked on this project as an undergraduate student at Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN. This work was supported by Middle Tennessee State University through a Faculty Research and Creative Activity Committee grant.


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Megan R. Hall
Middle Tennessee State University
Murfreesboro, TN 37132
Todd101215@aol.com

Ginger Holmes Rowell, Ph.D.
Middle Tennessee State University
Murfreesboro, TN 37132
rowell@mtsu.edu


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