AD 2: Evidence of a census completed during the Han Dynasty survives.
1500s: Girolamo Cardano calculates probabilities of different dice rolls.
1600s: Edmund Halley relates death rate to age and develops mortality tables.
1700s: Thomas Jefferson directs the first U.S. Census.
1839: The American Statistical Association is formed.
1894: The term “standard deviation” is introduced by Karl Pearson.
1935: R.A. Fisher publishes Design of Experiments.
For more history, check out this timeline of statistics.